• Logo
  • HamaraJournals

Principles of medical ethics in e-health services

Asieh Darvish, Hashem Nikomaram



Attention to the information quality compliance with legal issues and medical ethics is one of the most important factors for people trust and motivation to use e-health services beneficially. This study reviews the e-health ethics and the principles of medical ethics. Results showed that the e-health ethics principles and the quality criteria of e-health website such as authenticity, confidentiality, data updates, accountability, accessibility, and efficiency are based on principles and values of medical ethics. But the challenges for the Web features such as increased access and development of communication can be seen on issues such as privacy, security and justice in the distribution of services. It is proposed to improve alignment with the principles of online health services with medical ethics by considering four aspects: improving knowledge of ethics guidelines, encouragement, evaluation and providing legislation and laws with the management supervision.


-Forkner-Dunn J, Internet-based patient self-care: the Internet generation of health care delivery, J Med Internet Res, 2003; 5(2). www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1550561 (accessed 30 Jan 2015).

- Kardan A , Darvish A. Internet health services for women, Conference on Women and the Internet in the Third Millennium, Proceeding, Tehran. 2006 [Persian].

-Nikomaram H, Madanchi Zaj M. Business Ethics in Islam, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University Press, 2010: 1st ed. 5. [Persian].

-Kohandel P, Zareyi N. Tutorials of medical ethics (medical ethics, history and characteristics of the duties of doctors), published by the Center for Studies and Research Ethics, 1994; 1st ed. 16-36 [Persian].

- Mavan A. Tutorials of Medical Ethics (Ethics in historical periods), published by the Center for Studies and Research Ethics, 1994; 1st ed. 1-15[Persian].

- Sharif KafAl, -GHAZAL. Medical ethics in Islamic History at a glance, JISHIM, 2005.

- Islamic code of medical and health Sciences, Regional Committee for the Eastern Mediterranean, 52nd session, 2005.EM/RC52/7.

- Tabatabai M, Kalantar Hormozi AJ. Foundations of medical ethics from the perspective of Islamic literatures and of Iran figures, Journal of Medical Research, Shahid Beheshti University, Iran, 2011; 35(1) [Persian].

Johnson, Deborah G. Computer ethics: the Philosophy of Computing and Information, 2nd ed. 1994:65.

- Terrell Ward Bynum. A Very Short History of Computer Ethics, American Philosophical Association’s Newsletter on Philosophy and Computing, summer issue, The research center of computer society, 2011. rccs.southernct.edu/a-very-short-history-of-computer-ethics (accessed 30 Jan 2015).

- Ehealth code of ethics: vision statement. Indian Journal of Medical Ethics, 2000; 8(3).

- Ammenwerth E, Iller C, Mahler C. IT-adaption and the interaction of task, technology and individuals: a fit framework and a case study, BMC Med Inform Decis Mak, 2006; 6(3).

- Goran U, Goran P, Katarina H. Reasons for Consulting a Doctor on the Internet: Web Survice Users of an Ask the Doctor Service. J Med Internet Res, 2003; 5(4): e26. www.jmir.org/2003/4/e26 (accessed 30 Jan 2015).

- Grady JL,Schlachta-Fairchild L.Report of 2004-2005 International Telenursing Survey, CIN, 2005; 25(5)266-272.

- Metz JM, Coyle C, Hudson C, et al. An Internet-Based Cancer Clinical Trials Matching Resource, J Med Internet Res. 2005; 7(3): e24 (accessed 30 Jan 2015).

- Rimer BK, Lyons EJ, Ribisl KM, et al. How New Subscribers Use Cancer-Related Online Mailing Lists, . J Med Internet Res, 2005; 7(3):e32. www.jmir.org/2005/3/e32 (accessed 30 Jan 2015).

- Claudia C. Gutiérrez Rodríguez, Michel Riveill, e-Health Monitoring Applications: What about Data Quality? , Proceedings of the Health Ambiant Information Systems Workshop, HamIS, 2011: Vol-729.

-Majusi Ahwazi Arjany A. Medical Procedures or Pndnamh Ahvaz, dedication doctor Mahmoud Najmabadi, Parvin Publishing Corporation. 1941(318 - 384 AD).

- Commission of the European Communities. Quality Criteria for Health Related Websites, Brussels, eEurope, J Med Internet Res, 2002; 4(3):E15. www.jmir.org/2002/3/e15(accessed 30 Jan 2015).

- Graham AL, Abrams DB. Reducing the Cancer Burden of Lifestyle Factors: Opportunities and Challenges of the Internet. J Med Internet Res. 2005; 7(3): e26. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1550652 (accessed 30 Jan 2015).

- Working together for health. The World Health Report, WHO. 2006. www.who.int/whr/2006/whr06_en.pdf (accessed on Nov 2014).

- Laurence. Baker, Todd H. Wagner, Sara Singer, M Kate Bundorf. Use of the internet and E-mail for Health Care Information, JAMA, 2003; Vol289.

- Rainie L., Susannah Fox, Ferguson T., et al. Critical Issues in consumer Health Informatics Research Branch, The National Center Institute The Pew Internet and American Life Project. 2001. www.publicpriorart.org/xml/20/1/1/2357/64696/ 30 Jan 2015).

- Darvish A, Keyhanian S. Nurse: Care giver, Teacher, Supporter and consulter from distance for cancer prevention”, J Dena, 2009: School of Nursing and Midwifery, Yasoj University, Iran[Persian].

- Youngblood P, Harter PM, Srivastava S, et al. Design, development, and evaluation of an online virtual emergency department for training trauma teams, Simul Healthc.2003; 3(3).146-153.

- Wiecha J, Heyden R, Sternthal E. Learning in a Virtual World: Experience With Using Second Life for Medical Education, J Med Internet Res, 2010; 12(1):e1. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2821584 (accessed 30 Jan 2015).

- Annie YS Lau, Enrico W Coiera J. Impact of Web Searching and Social Feedback on Consumer Decision Making: A Prospective Online Experiment, J Med Internet Res, 2008;10(1):e2. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2483845 (accessed 30 Jan 2015).

- Nasr S. Endoscope capsule: oral camera, the Association of Medical Engineering, Journal of Medical Engineering, 2008; 86: 46-48[Persian].

- Ann C Seror. A case Analysis of INFOMED: Cuban National Health Care Telecommunications Network and Portal , J Med Internet Res. 2006; 8(1): e1.www.jmir.org/2006/1/e1(accessed 30 Jan 2015).

- Atkinson NL,Saperstein S, Pleis J. Using the Internet for Health-Related Activities: Findings from a National Probability Sample , J Med Internet Res,2009; 11(1):e4. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19275980 (accessed 30 Jan 2015).

Kardan A, Darvish A. A review on Internet based Health Services in Iran", VI international congress on health informatics, Proceedings. SLD206, 2007.www.informatica2007.sld.cu/Members/Darvish/a-review-on-internet-based-health-services-in-iran?set_language=en[abstract](accessed 30 Jan 2015).

- Silberg WM, Lundberg GD, Musacchio RA. Assessing controlling, and assuring the quality of medical information on the Internet: Caveant lector et viewor--Let the reader and viewer beware [editorial] JAMA, 1997; 16;277(15):1244–5.

-Sarmadi M, Shalbaf A. Ethics in Total Quality Management, Journal of Ethics in Science and Technology, 2007; 2, (3, 4)[Persian].

- Eysenbach G, Diepgen T L. Towards quality management of medical information on the internet: evaluation, labelling, and filtering of information. BMJ.1998; 28;317(7171):1496–500.

- Eysenbach G,Towards ethical guidelines for e-health. JMIR Theme Issue on eHealth Ethics, J Med Internet Res. 2000; 2(1): e7. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11720926(accessed 30 Jan 2015).

- Bodkin C, Miaoulis G. eHealth information quality and ethics issues: an exploratory study of consumer perceptions, International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, 2007; 1(1).27 – 42.

- Aramesh K. Discussion of the principles of justice in Medical Ethics, Ethics in Science and Technology Journal, 2007, 2(3,4)[Persian].

- ShakeriNia A. Qualitative analysis of the commercial and ethical aspects. Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine, 2010;3(3)[Persian].

- Suchy K. A lack of standardization: the basis for the ethical issues surrounding quality and performance reports, Journal of Healthcare Management.2010; 55(4), 241-251.

- Aminpoor F. Medical ethics challenges in the information society, Iranian Journal of Medical Ethics and History. 2008 [Persian].


  • There are currently no refbacks.