Introduction: the evolving mobile networks are envisioned to have a flexible and reliable network to meet all design requirements needed for the fifth generation (5G) of networks. The cloud radio access network, as an evolution in mobile networks, changes the traditional architecture of the network by moving the BBUs to the central office. This comes with new challenges that are addressed by new technologies like Radio over Fiber and now Radio over Ethernet, which proposes a technique to transmit all radio data types over a traditional Ethernet based front-haul network. In this paper, we focus on the architecture and the design considerations of Radio-over-Ethernet to have a more flexible and reliable front-haul network in Centralized Radio Access Network.
Material and method: In this paper we tried to use Ethernet protocol as a universal and public network protocol in radio based networks to make it flexible and reliable. This combination allows us to focus only on the access points and propose a new architecture to encapsulation (retrieve) radio data into (from) an Ethernet frame.
Result: This study resulted in a new architecture for radio access networks to disseminate radio data over a reliable network protocol and infrastructure. Some Ethernet header fields was modified and a mapper was included into the model in BBUs to create an adaption between radio and Ethernet infrastructures.
Conclusion: The result shows that although this new architecture may apply additional overhead in both information and process, but having an independent front-haul network is a necessity for Centralized Radio Access Network. However if industry implements this architecture and its processes regarding latency requirement, Radio over Ethernet will be a revolution in Centralized Radio Access Network to meet two main key design principles in 5G.
Checko A, Christiansen H, Yan Y, Scolari L, Kardaras G, Berger M, et al. Cloud RAN for mobile networks: A technology overview. IEEE Communication Surveys & Tutorials. 2015; 17(1): 405-26.
Hattachi RE, Erfanian J. 5G white paper: Next generation mobile networks. NGMN Alliance; 2015.
Umesh A. Study on new radio access technology: Radio access architecture and interfaces. Report No: TR 38.801, v14.0.0, Release 14. 3GPP; 2017.
Sayadi M, Rodrigez J, Olmos J, Monroy I. Latency and bit-error-rate evaluation for radio-over-ethernet in optical fiber front-haul networks. Journal of Optical Switching and Networking. 2018; 27: 88-92.
Cicconetti C. 5G radio network architecture: Radio access and spectrum [Internet] 2017. [cited: 1 Jul 2018]. Available from: http://www.ict-ras.eu.
Jose S. Visual networking index. Global mobile data traffic forecast update, 2012–2017. USA. 2013.
Wang R, Hu H, Yang X. Potentials and challenges of C-RAN supporting multi-RATs toward 5G mobile networks. IEEE Access. 2014; 2: 1187-95.
C-RAN the road towards green ran. China Mobile Research Institute; 2011.
Brown G. Converging telecom & IT in the LTE RAN. Samsung; 2013.
Irmer R, Droste H, Marsch P, Fettweis G, Brueck S, Mayer H, et al. Coordinated multipoint: Concepts, performance and field trial results. IEEE Communications Magazine. 2011; 49(2): 102-11.
Lee SL, Chuang MH, Lee CH, Sun CH, Tseng, Ming-Chien. Design and applications of radio-over-fiber schemes to indoor wireless coverage and high-speed rails. 3rd International Conference on Photonics. 2012; IEEE.
Lim C, Nirmalathas A, Bakaul M, Gamage P, Lee L, Yang Y, et al. Fiber-wireless networks and subsystem technologies. Journal of Lightwave Technology. 2010; 28(4): 390-405.
Cavalcante L, Silveira LFQ, Rommel S, Olmos J, Monroy I. Performance analysis of wavelet channel coding in COST207-based channel models on simulated radio-over-fiber systems at the w-band. Opt Quant Electron. 2016; 48:28-37.
IEEE standard for radio over ethernet encapsulations and mappings. IEEE; 2015.
Sabella D, Rost P, Sheng Y, Pateromichelakis E, Salim U, Guitton-Ouhamou P, et al. RAN as a service: Challenges of designing a flexible RAN architecture in a cloud-based networks. Conference on Future Networks & Mobile Summit. IEEE; 2013.
Cisco Nexus 9516 scaling 100G performance to new heights [Internet]. 2015. [cited: 1 Jul 2018]. Available from: http://networktest.com.
Common Public Radio Interface (CPRI): Interface Specification. CPRI Publications; 2013.